From Use Value to Exchange Value of the City: how public transport is transformed into semiconductive class membrane

Public transport has always been a point of class struggle even though not the one often identified as such. As a mechanism of social reproduction it has been under pressure from neoliberal policies in many ways: economic and quasi-moral in the first place. Rising prices and especially introduction of zero tolerance for jumping turnstiles have made public transport and also administrative centers inaccessible for residents of suburban areas.
This has been done with several goals: economisation of transport and introduction of new class structure of the city. Inaccessible administrative centers make for expensive regions of the city. Economisation, monetisation, and commodification of transport have a secondary goal, as well: class sanitation as a consequence of this process increases the prices of the city by lowering its use value – as a network of people – it increases its exchange value and creates infrastructure for making cities for exchange rather than for cities for living.